Saturday, 8 April 2017

Millennium Prize 2018 nominations now open - DL July 31

If you would like to join me to nominate Suntola for the Millennium Technology Prize, please contact - instructions at the end of the post. 

The nomination period for 2018 Millennium Technology Prize, given by Technology Academy of Finland, has opened on April 3, 2017. The Call for nominations can be found here: http://taf.fi/en/millennium-technology-prize/call-for-nominations/. Everyone can nominate candidates.

The nomination instructions, as copied from the page are:

  • The nomination should include a Nomination Letter with a concise description of the cited innovation and the underlying technology, an assessment of the present and future impact of the innovation, as well as identification of the role of each nominee in the innovation process.
  • A concise separate CV must be supplied for each nominee.
  • All nomination material must be presented in English.
  • Please note that self-nomination is not allowed.


The general principles of the Millennium Technology Prize, as copied from the page, are:
  • Awarded to groundbreaking technological innovations that enhance the quality of people’s lives in a sustainable manner.
  • The innovations have been applied in practice and are delivering extensive change now and in the future.
  • The innovations stimulate further cutting edge research and development in science and technology.
I think that atomic layer deposition (ALD) easily fulfills all the listed general principles.

Thursday, 23 March 2017

VPHA status update 22.3.2017


The status update below was sent to 76 VPHA contributors and 46 prospective contributors. To register to get the next updates, please email info@ vph-ald.com.
Begin forwarded message:

From: Puurunen Riikka < >
Subject: VPHA status update 22.3.2017
Date: 22 March 2017 at 21:37:12 GMT+2
Cc: Puurunen Riikka < >, Sundqvist Jonas < >

Dear current and prospective VPHA contributors,

This is the first VPHA status update in year 2017. For VPHA, this year has started with significant visibility: the review article published in JVSTA was the most read of all articles published in JVSTA. The previous VPHA status update was published on December 19, 2016. This update discusses the following topics:

  1. ALD history review article(s) in JVSTA
  2. Boulder & NanoSolutions & particle ALD -related ALD History Blog post + Weimer's guest post
  3. About the earlier ALD history activities + about VPHA's future
  4. Recent VPHA-related Wikipedia updates
  5. New affiliation by Puurunen (professor, Aalto University)
  6. Other posts in ALD History Blog (Pessa; ethics; PillarHall)

Wednesday, 22 March 2017

OT: Communication to VPHA participants on conformality analysis survey

The VPHA off-topic (OT) communication below was sent to 76 VPHA co-authors and 47 prospective co-authors. 

From: Puurunen Riikka
Sent: 15. maaliskuuta 2017 19:05
To: Puurunen Riikka < >
Cc: Utriainen Mikko < >
Subject: Conformality analysis survey link to VPHA participants

Dear VPHA co-authors and prospective co-authors,

This email is not related to VPHA but to lateral high-aspect-ratio test structures created to analyse the conformality of films made by ALD and other methods. I hope that you do not mind receiving this “off-topic” message sent to all VPHA participants. 

Some of you know that I have been recently working on the topic of conformality analysis of ALD films. Currently, we continue to work on it at VTT in a project funded by Finnish Funding Agency for Innovation. The recipient list has many people knowledgeable of the subject.

Tuesday, 14 March 2017

Krause writes about Aalto University's new catalysis professor

Professor emerita Outi Krause has written a very nice description related my new affiliation as professor of Catalysis Science and Technology at Aalto University. The text was originally meant for and published in "Katse", the newsletter of the Finnish Catalysis Society. With the permission of prof. em. Krause and the chairman of Finnish Catalysis Society, it is republished in this post in full (in Finnish).

--- originally published in Katse 1/2017 ---


Riikka Puurunen Aalto-yliopiston professoriksi


TkT Riikka Puurunen aloitti helmikuun alussa Aalto-yliopiston kemian tekniikan korkeakoulussa määräaikaisena teknillisen kemian professorina (associate professor) erityisalueenaan katalyysi.

Riikka Puurunen on TKK:n kasvatti. Hän aloitti opintonsa Kemian osastolla vuonna 1994, valmistui DI:ksi neljä ja puoli vuotta myöhemmin ja väitteli tekniikan tohtoriksi vuonna 2002. Jatko-opintoihin sisältyi myös vuoden tutkimusjakso K.U. Leuvenissä Belgiassa. Väitöksen jälkeen hän palasi Belgiaan postdoc-tutkijaksi IMEC-tutkimuskeskukseen. Riikka tuli takaisin Suomeen ja Otaniemeen v. 2004 VTT:lle tutkijaksi, josta hän siirtyi Aalto-yliopistoon. Hän jatkaa myös VTT:n osa-aikaisena vanhempana tutkijana tämä vuoden heinäkuun loppuun asti.

Monday, 13 March 2017

On the mammoth table - JAP 2005, JAP 2013 - next step VPHA?



The "mammoth table" of two-reactant ALD processes that many ALD researchers will have seen, was created for Puurunen's JAP 2005 review (open access here), and updated for the Miikkulainen et al. JAP 2013 review (open access here).


An idea has come up that it might be possible to update the table again within the Virtual Project on the History of ALD (VPHA). No promises yet---just an idea.


Screen capture of the first rows of the updated "mammoth table" spanning over 17 pages. Reprinted from V. Miikkulainen, M. Leskelä, M. Ritala, R. L. Puurunen, J. Appl. Phys. 113 (2013) 021301, http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4757907, with the permission of AIP Publishing.


With the view of possibly updating the mammoth table, this post describes how the mammoth table was originally created and how it has been once updated. Whether or not an update will be made within VPHA, the background information shared here should be useful regarding an update that eventually at some point in some form most likely will be made. A previous post on the unique article codes used in VPHA is related to this post and the mammoth table: the unique coding was already started for the JAP 2005 review and re-used in the Miikkulainen et al. JAP 2013 review as well as in VPHA's ALD-history-evolving-file. If/when an update to the mammoth table will be made within VPHA, the unique article codes will be used again.


ALD surface chemistry review and the mammoth table - Puurunen, JAP 2005

The mammoth table aims to summarize all two-reactant ALD processes developed by a given timeline. The table was first created for the JAP 2005 review.


When writing the JAP 2005 review, I had a vision to try to write the kind of review article which I hoped would have been available when I started with ALD in 1998.

Guest post by Weimer: Early History of Particle ALD at the University of Colorado

Please find below the first guest post ever written for the ALD History Blog: Prof. Alan Weimer from the University of Colorado continues on the topic of a previous related post, sheading light to the early particle ALD developments at the University of Colorado and ALD NanoSolutions.   

--- guest post begins ---

Early History of Particle ALD at the University of Colorado

In 1997, Steve George and I started investigating the ALD on particles – Steve investigated the surface chemistry through in-situ FTIR and I investigated the processing to coat large volumes of fine particles using a fluidized bed reactor.   At that time, Steve was an ALD chemistry expert and I was expert in the synthesis and functionalization of fine particles, having worked in the area for nearly 20 years.  Much of my background was fluidized processing.  Very intense research that year indicated that we could use ALD to coat large volumes of primary particles identically without “gluing them” to neighboring particles.   HRTEM was key as well as surface area, particle size distribution, FTIR, and XPS measurements; and of course agitated particles.   I was quite surprised that individual primary particles could be coated as I knew that CVD inherently deposited nanoparticles formed in the gas phase, hence, forming agglomerated particles.

Monday, 6 March 2017

Copy of earlier communication to earlier ALD history review authors

A few days ago, copies of two emails were published in the ALD History Blog, which have been recently sent to the authors of the 2013 ALD history review to update them regarding the latest progress in VPHA. That the post has been re-tweeted in Twitter tells that the material has been of interest to someone. Link to post: http://aldhistory.blogspot.fi/2017/02/copies-of-communications-to-earlier-ald.html

For completeness of info, in this post, an email is published from October 2013, where the authors of the then-new 2013 ALD history review were originally informed of and invited to participate in the then-recently started Virtual Project on the History of ALD.  

From: Puurunen Riikka
Sent: 8. lokakuuta 2013 10:31
To: <10 authors> 
Cc: Puurunen Riikka; Aziz Abdulagatov; Jonas Sundqvist; ALD Pulse
Subject: Virtual project on the history of ALD: introduction and invitation to participate

Dear authors of the recent ALD review, JVSTA 31 (2013) 050818, 

Virtual project on the history of ALD: Introduction and invitation to participate.

Did you know that the first publication of TiO2 thin films from TiCl4 and H2O by ALD on planar silicon substrates dates from year 1970? That Prof. Aleskovskii envisioned ALD as a "route to further miniaturization of microelectronic devices and to molecular electronics" in 1974? That a research group in St Petersburg has been active on ALD all the time since 1960's? These and many other things have already surfaced during the "virtual project on the history of ALD", an open worldwide collaborative effort to clarify the early history of ALD. Your participation in the “virtual project” would be very welcome and your expertise in the field of ALD highly useful for putting the new knowledge properly into place in today's perspective.

Saturday, 4 March 2017

New page: collection of ethical guidelines

New page created in ALD History Blog to collect together ethical guidelines from various sources related to the making and publishing of scientific research.

Link: http://aldhistory.blogspot.fi/p/ethical-guidelines.html

Contents as of March 4, 2017:
The goal is that the list will evolve with time to a more covering list. If you have suggestion of links to add, please let me know.

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Virtual Project on the History of ALD (VPHA) - in atmosphere of Openness, Respect, and Trust

Tuesday, 28 February 2017

Copies of communications to earlier ALD history review authors

Copies below of recent emails to authors of the JVSTA 2013 ALD history review informing of the progress of the Virtual Project on the History of ALD.

-------- Alkuperäinen viesti --------
Aihe: RE: Article on the history of ALD: recommended reading list of early publications
Lähettäjä: Puurunen Riikka
Vastaanottaja: <10 authors>
Kopio: info@ vph-ald.com

Dear authors of JVSTA 31 (2013) 050818, http://dx.doi.org/10.1116/1.4816548,

I have written a blog post to describe the ALD history activities preceding the Virtual Project on the History of ALD. Maybe you can find it interesting. Your JVSTA 2013 review is briefly mentioned, under section “2013, the AVS ALD history article and VPHA”.

Saturday, 25 February 2017

On the "earlier ALD history activities" mentioned in the JVSTA focused ALD history review

As stated in the focused ALD history review recently published in the Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, the Virtual Project on the History of ALD (VPHA) "in essence, continues the earlier ALD history activities of one of the current authors, whose results were published in a review article in 2005."

In this post, I wish to tell more of the background of the earlier ALD history activities mentioned: how they started and what they were. The earlier history activities are related to my own doctoral thesis (2002) and the postdoctoral time after that.


Screen capture,  R. L. Puurunen's doctoral thesis at the Aalto University library server, access through http://lib.tkk.fi/Diss/2002/isbn9512261421/.


Microchemistry, Neste and Helsinki University of Technology - doctoral thesis

I made my Master's thesis in 1998 at Microchemistry, Espoo, Finland (nowadays part of ASM International), and continued for doctorate in 1999-2002 partly Neste and partly Helsinki University of Technology (HUT). Generalizing, the subject of my research was the surface modification of porous particles by atomic layer deposition for catalyst applications.

Sunday, 12 February 2017

ALD history and prof. emeritus Markus Pessa (updated)

TEK-lehti wrote on Jan 30, 2017 an excellent article about the Optoelectronics Research Centre (ORC) at Tampere University of Technology (TUT), mentioning the very special Finnish researcher and inventor, prof. emeritus Markus Pessa who is also the founder and former leader of ORC. Pessa has also influenced the understanding of the history of atomic layer deposition (ALD) within the Virtual Project on the History of ALD (VPHA). The TEK-lehti article inspired me to write in the ALD History Blog also of Pessa's influence.

Many ALD researchers will recognise M. Pessa from early ALD publications. The first scientific article published in Finland on ALD in 1980 (Ahonen et al.) is co-authored by Pessa, and so is the review article in Journal of Applied Physics in 1986, which has been chosen to define the end year of VPHA. Both articles were featured and described in the recommended reading list of early ALD publications in the VPHA JVSTA focused review, http://dx.doi.org/10.1116/1.4971389 (open access).

Pessa has been further related to two puzzling questions which I have encountered during VPHA.  I believe that both questions have received decent answers.

  1. When I started to work at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland in 2004, I soon learned from a colleague who had worked at TUT that there is (/was?) an old ALD reactor displayed labelled as "the world's first ALE reactor". When I first heard this, I admit that I was very surprised. How could this be true? ALE was invented in Espoo by Suntola, after all.    
  2. I have - of course - been curious of when the Finnish and Soviet ALD scientists first met. When during the past few years I presented the question to several long-term scientists in Finland who were active already in 1990, I got always basically the same answer: the first meeting was at the ALE-1 conference in 1990 in Helsinki, where these researchers "just appeared". How come they "just appeared" there?!? How did they find their way to the conference?  
Copy of the cover of book of programme and abstracts, ALE-1 conference, Espoo/Helsinki, Finland, June 13-15, 1990. 

Saturday, 11 February 2017

CU Boulder Today, ALD NanoSolutions, VPHA

CU Boulder Today published on Feb 7, 2017 a nice article describing the history of the company ALD NanoSolutions, a spin-off from the University of Colorado Boulder. ALD NanoSolutions is specialized in atomic layer deposition (ALD) for the coating of particles. Link to article: http://www.colorado.edu/today/2017/02/07/spinoff-company-all-cu-boulder-family.

Some quotes from the CU Boulder Today article:
  • In 1997, Professor Alan Weimer of chemical and biological engineering heard a campus talk by Professor Steven George of chemistry about a novel process of coating surfaces with the thinnest of materials possible, known as atomic layer deposition (ALD).
  • Within a few years Weimer and George had filed a number of patents on the technology, gaining exclusive rights to a wide range of intellectual property.
  • “This company has executed with focus and pragmatism since we formed it, and now we are moving into high gear commercially,” says Weimer. “And we have what I call a lot of high-end ethics within the company, which is very important to all of us. That is one reason we are all still together after all these years.”
My first recollection of ALD NanoSolutions is from early 2000s, from the time I was a doctoral student at Helsinki University of Technology - nowadays Aalto University - in the Industrial Chemistry group of Prof. Outi Krause during 1999 to 2002. My research concerned particle ALD for catalyst applications. I started in 1998 as a diploma worker at Microchemistry Ltd. (nowadays part of ASM) in a research line which had been started many years earlier in Finland by Tuomo Suntola at Microchemistry Ltd. and the Finnish oil company Neste Oy (for more info, see the "Suntola story" in CVD 2014, details below). At HUT, we were of course curious of this new company: who is behind it, what is the technology, how will it commercialize ALD? 

Photo of Riikka after visiting ALD NanoSolutions March 18, 2014. (I cannot recall who took the photograph upon my request.  I will be to happy to add the name of the photographer here if the person who remembers to have taken the photo, will contact me.) 

Fast forward more than a decade. In 2014, I had a chance to travel to Boulder and visit Prof. Steven George and his group. At this moment, I worked as a Senior Scientist at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.

Thursday, 9 February 2017

About the unique article codes used in VPHA {AuthorYearOptionalindex}

A note about the unique VPHA publication codes, which are given in curly brackets for each article listed in the ALD-history-evolving-file and also in VPHA-reading-overview-file
  • The unique codes are in the form {AuthorYearOptionalindex}, for example {Koltsov1969b}.    
  • The codes are used for quick identification purposes of different articles. They must remain unique and cannot therefore be issued without central coordination. In practice in VPHA, the codes have been managed so far by Yury & Riikka (rather unnoticeably in the background). Questions --> email info@ vph-ald.com (remove the space). 
  • In addition to functioning as unique identification in VPHA, the codes enable the writing of large documents with LaTeX  with automatic generation of reference lists with BibTeX
  • As background info: in VPHA, we build upon the list of unique codes used for generating the literature lists of the two ALD review articles published in Journal of Applied Physics (Applied Physics reviews) in 2005 and 2013 (and Puurunen’s thesis before those). If/when we will write another review article from VPHA (Item 10 partly completed in the VPHA Publication Plan), the codes (and a bibtex file in which they are stored) will again serve for generating the literature list and references. 
  • The VPHA participants are requested to avoid using the curly brackets in their comments in the ALD-history-evolving-file for other purposes than these unique publication codes.


*********************
Virtual Project on the History of ALD (VPHA) - in atmosphere of Openness, Respect, and Trust

Sunday, 5 February 2017

New affiliation, a personal note

Through this personal note in ALD History Blog, I would like to inform the VPHA participants as well as other people of a career change which I am currently going through.

February 1st, I started as associate professor (tenure track), Catalysis Science and Technology at Aalto University. My just-created description in the Aalto people pages describes the current status and the near-future plans (as of Feb 5, 2017):  
Associate professor (tenure track), Catalysis Science and Technology. Strong background and continued interest in Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD); aiming to build research e.g. with microreactors and in situ/operando measurements. "Work-hobby:" history of ALD; interested in open science approaches. Feb-Jul 2017 working 60% at Aalto University and 40% at VTT Technical Reseach Centre of Finland; from Aug 2017 on, full time at Aalto University. Open for new (and old!) collaborations. 
For the next half year, I will work part time (60%, typically Wed-Fri) at Aalto University and part time (40%, typically Mon-Tue) at VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland. The remaining work at VTT concentrates on the lateral high-aspect-ratio test structures (LHAR/PillarHall) in a "TUTL" project financed by Tekes.

As an Aalto University professor, I will continue to coordinate the Virtual Project on the History of ALD (VPHA) as before.

Espoo, February 5, 2017
Riikka Puurunen

*********************
Virtual Project on the History of ALD (VPHA) - in atmosphere of Openness, Respect, and Trust

Sunday, 29 January 2017

Views on Wikipedia related to ALD and VPHA

People of all sorts of backgrounds (including journalists and politicians) use Wikipedia as a quick source to find basic information on a variety of subjects.

The next image shows pageviews analysis for a few pages relevant to ALD and VPHA, taken on January 28, 2017, and showing the statistics for the past twenty days. For example, the page of atomic layer deposition is viewed typically 100 to 200 times per day, while chemical vapor deposition is viewed typically 300 to 700 times per day. There is a pattern related to week days: towards weekend, there are less views. To compare, in ALD History Blog, the typical number of pageviews for an average page is several tens; the most viewed post (travel notes from ALD 2016) has received 297 views all time as of Feb 28, 2017.



I have during VPHA understood how valuable Wikipedia and also Wikimedia Commons are as a sources, and I invite everyone to contribute in continuously improving their information. Non-specialists will appreciate clear and jargon-free language, logical structure of the page, good pictures and relevant references. Review articles should be good as links. All references should be openly available for viewing---regarding scientific articles, this means that they should be not be behind a paywall but be of open access.

Sunday, 8 January 2017

VPHA article featured + most read in JVSTA

With pleasure I can share that the review article from VPHA, "Recommended reading list of early publications on atomic layer deposition—Outcome of the “Virtual Project on the History of ALD" (62 authors), JVSTA 35 (2017) 010801, http://dx.doi.org/10.1116/1.4971389, has currently a "featured" status in the website of Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology and it is currently no. 1 in the "most read" list. See below for a screen capture from http://avs.scitation.org/journal/jva taken on January 8, 2016.

The metrics of the article report that it has been viewed 469 times (see screen capture below). For comparison, the second most viewed article---the excellent atomic layer etching overview by Kanarik et al.---has received 375 views.

Regarding the viewing statistics, I have two questions in mind to JVSTA:

  • I cannot find an explanation in the JVSTA website of the time in which the views are recorded. Does the counting start from the original publication of the article or from the beginning of a month/year?
  • It would be interesting to view the Altmetrics summary of the article. Could an Altmetrics link be added to the articles in the website? As an example, the Altmetrics summary of the ALE-ALD essay can be viewed here.  

Monday, 2 January 2017

Wikipedia List of multiple discoveries updated with ALD

The Wikipedia page List of multiple discoveries has been updated by adding ALD in the list of multiple discoveries in the 20th century. With this addition, the VPHA Publication Plan Item 11 "Updating wikipedia" is completed.

The update consists of the addition of the following text:


The three references mentioned are the three reviews/essays generated in the Virtual Project on the History of ALD: